, The French traveller Louis Rousselet, who visited in 1863 and 1868, states in his book LInde des Rajahs, which was first published in 1877: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Ba Bahia, or (French: "bonne bai", English: "good bay"), not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mumba Devi, and that she still possesses a temple".  Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the company's establishments in India. , The sex ratio in 2011 was 838 females per 1,000 males in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males. ", Cities with the most skyscrapers | Statistics | EMPORIS, Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, "With 42% living in slums virus casts long shadow across Mumbai", "Parsis top literacy, sex-ratio charts in city", "Mumbaiites prepare for a bumpy ride this year", "District Census Handbook -MUMBAI SUBURBAN", "Highlights of Economic Survey of Maharashtra 200506", "Mumbai's New-Age Builders want a Room at the Top", "Mumbai noisiest city, Delhi at number 4: Central Pollution Control Board", "Muslims of Mumbai (Bombay), major city of India", "Background: A rich history now stained with blood", "Why is India's wealthy Parsi community vanishing?  Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG), and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport.  During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city.  However, other sources disagree that Mumbai's name was derived from the goddess Mumba.  Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal, Grihashobhika, Lokrajya, Lokprabha & Chitralekha.  A member of the legislative assembly (MLA) to the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (legislative assembly) is elected from each of the assembly constituencies.  There are five tolled entry points to the city by road.  Grant Medical College established in 1845 and Seth G.S. , The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena on 19 June 1966, under the leadership of Balasaheb Thackeray out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Bombay.  They called the islands by various names, which finally took the written form Bombaim.  Along with the rest of India, Mumbai has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in the 2000s.  The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones, each headed by a deputy commissioner of police. In 1999, several members left the Congress to form the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) but later allied with the Congress as part of an alliance known as the Democratic Front.  The Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09km2 (39.80 sq mi). , Cooking gas is supplied in the form of liquefied petroleum gas cylinders sold by state-owned oil companies, as well as through piped natural gas supplied by Mahanagar Gas Limited. , Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which lies just across the creek in Navi Mumbai. Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Mumbai, Former Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Mumbai, "Bombay" redirects here.  Older terms such as Bombayite are also in use. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. ", "51st REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA", "C-16 Population by Mother Tongue (Town level)", "Jumbo King tries a McDonald's with vada pav 10,000 a day & counting", "The king of Bombay's street food: Wada pav", "Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya", "Sahitya Akademi: awards and fellowships", "Bandra's spirit captured in cakes, tattoos", "MTDC will not pull out of Elephanta, Banganga fests", "The Times of India turns the Times of Colour", "IRS Q2, 2010: Negligible decline of daily readers in Greater Mumbai", "IRS Q2 2010: Publications in Maharashtra see some light", "Public life and voluntary social service organisations", "Bollywood Trawls London for Talent as Students Balk at Banking", "Bollywood filmmakers experimenting with new genre of films", "Mumbai's Film City may be home to world cinema", "Education board tells schools to get state recognition", "mumbai university: Latest News, Videos and mumbai university Photos | Times of India", "Are you cut out for Arts, Science or Commerce? , State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce.  Mumbai has approximately 1,900km (1,181mi) of roads. The number of households with annual incomes of 20lakh (2million) rupees will increase from 4% to 10% by 2020, amounting to 660,000 families.  The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far is the final of the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which was played at the Wankhede Stadium. Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, Odia, Punjabi, Sindhi, Tulu, Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri are other minority languages spoken in Mumbai.  The first line of the Mumbai Metro opened in early June 2014.
, Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations.  India's first underground water tunnel was completed in Mumbai to supply water to the Bhandup filtration plant. " Slate also said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region. The MCGM also imparts secondary education to 55,576 students through its 49 secondary schools.  Perhaps at the beginning of the Common Era, or possibly earlier, they came to be occupied by the Koli fishing community. , It is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (sometimes referred to as the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai), formerly known as the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC). The textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the widespread 1982 Great Bombay Textile Strike, in which nearly 250,000 workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike.  The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane, the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Bhayander. , Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. ", "When it comes to courses, MU dishes up a big buffet", India Today Best Universities 2013: University of Mumbai | Photo1 | India Today |, "India Today ranks India's Best Universities for 2013", "Admission process for autonomous engg colleges to start today", "First U.S.-India joint EMBA program begins", "..:: Directorate of Technical Education, Maharashtra State, Mumbai::", "University ties up with renowned institutes", "Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai details, matches, stats", "IT Raids at IPL Headquarter at BCCI in Mumbai, reports NDTV | InvestmentKit.com Articles", "Attacking pattern of play has delivered", "Brabourne the stadium with a difference", "Forget cricket, soccer's new media favourite", "Kenkre FC's I-League dreams: 21 years in the making", "HIL: Police assure tight security for matches in Mumbai", "Badminton Association of India announces the 2nd Edition of the Indian Badminton League", "Mallya, Diageo fight for McDowell Derby", "Motor racing-Force India F1 team to launch 2008 car in Mumbai", "Bangalore replaces Mumbai on ATP Tour circuit", "Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR", "Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai", "Multilingualism, Multiculturalism and Education: Case Study of Mumbai City", "Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region", "The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888", Official website of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (Prince of Wales Museum), Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST), Institute of Chemical Technology (formerly UDCT), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), SP Jain Institute of Management and Research, Sydenham Institute of Management Studies, Research and Entrepreneurship Education(SIMSREE), Ramniranjan Anandilal Podar College of Commerce and Economics, V. G. Vaze College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Raja Shivaji Vidyalaya (King George High School), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences (UM-DAE CBS), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mumbai&oldid=1099433010, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Articles with dead external links from April 2017, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Articles containing Marathi-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2005, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata namespace mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 19812010), MH-01 Mumbai(S/C), MH-02 Mumbai(W), MH-03 Mumbai(E), MH-47 Borivali, This page was last edited on 20 July 2022, at 19:14. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. The institute is one of four deemed to be universities operating under the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR); the other three being the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), the [National Dairy Research Institute] (NDRI) and the Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI), Cricket is more popular than any other sport in the city. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC, also known as ST) buses provide intercity transport connecting Mumbai with other towns and cities of Maharashtra and nearby states. , Marathi is the official language and the working language in bureaucracy of the city along with English and Hindi.  Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Beaches are a major tourist attraction in the city. , The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services.  Mumbai is the centre of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the sixth most populous metropolitan area in the world with a population of over 2.3crore (23 million).  Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai.  and seventh in the list of "Top Ten Cities for Billionaires" by Forbes magazine (April 2008), and first in terms of the average wealth of billionaires. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs.  The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras. The success of the British campaign in the Deccan marked the end of all attacks by native powers.  The Mahakali Caves in Andheri were cut out between the 1st century BCE and the 6th century CE.
 The Mumbai Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai. , The Mumbai Suburban Railway, popularly referred to as Locals forms the backbone of the city's transport system. Bombay Citizens' Committee, an advocacy group of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent status.  Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets. In 1954 Hindustan Petroleum comissoned Mumbai Refinery at Trombay and BPCL Refinery.  The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from the Thane creek on the  This name possibly originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese.  This came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, and mirrored similar name changes across the country and particularly in Maharashtra.   In August 1979, a sister township of New Bombay was founded by the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) across the Thane and Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's population.  Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State. Mumbai also has a special Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (TADA) court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.  In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is 31C (88F), while the average minimum temperature is 24C (75F).  For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment.  The Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 134748 and controlled it until 1407.  Some of the oldest edifices in the city built during this period are the Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 and 525), Elephanta Caves (between the sixth to seventh century), Walkeshwar Temple (10th century), and Banganga Tank (12th century). ", "Floristic Survey of Institute of Science, Mumbai, Maharashtra State", "Seismic Hazard estimation for Mumbai City", Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy 1999, "Mumbai floods: Why India's cities are struggling with extreme rainfall", "Will Mumbai flood this year too? , Electricity is distributed by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) undertaking in the island city, and by Reliance Energy, Tata Power, and the Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd (Mahavitaran) in the suburbs. The Mumbai Nashik Expressway, Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway, are under construction. , Greater Mumbai (or Brihanmumbai), an area of 603km2 (233sqmi), consisting of the Mumbai City and Mumbai Suburban districts, extends from Colaba in the south, to Mulund and Dahisar in the north, and Mankhurd in the east. In the 2019 state assembly election, out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 16 were won by the BJP, 11 by the Shiv Sena, 6 by the Congress, 2 by the NCP and one by independent candidate. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. , The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro have been built and are being extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network. The city's cosmopolitan and urban-centric modern cultural offerings are comparable to other world capitals.  Though 88% of the city's commuters travel by public transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with traffic congestion.  The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay..  The Koli people originated in Kathiawar and Central Gujarat, and according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawar (Gujarat), where she is still worshipped. " While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by some Indians from other regions, mention of the city by a name other than Mumbai has been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts, sometimes of a violently political nature. Its strongest scores in the QS University Rankings: BRICS are for papers per faculty (8th), employer reputation (20th) and citations per paper (28th). , The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea. , The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai.  While the city was the capital of the Bombay Presidency, the Indian independence movement fostered the Quit India Movement in 1942 and the Royal Indian Navy mutiny in 1946. The key sectors contributing to the city's economy are: finance, gems & jewellery, leather processing, IT and ITES, textiles, petrochemical, electronics manufacturing, automobiles, and entertainment.  The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky. , Apart from the Bhatsa Dam, there are six major lakes that supply water to the city: Vihar, Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development. ", "3 Mumbaikars Who Are Changing The City All By Themselves", "What about Gateway of India, Banganga Tank? eastern to Madh Marve on the western front. With a total wealth of around $96,000 crore ($960billion), it is the richest Indian city and 12th richest city in the world. The city is also home to Bollywood and Marathi cinema industries. In the final they lost 34 to the Chennai Smashers. As of 2014[update], Mumbai had the highest number of internet users in India with 1.64crore (16.4million) users..  In the second season, the final of the 2016 Premier Badminton League was held between home-squad Mumbai Rockets and the Delhi Dashers (formerly Delhi Acers), the visitors eventually claiming the title.  Jews settled in Bombay during the 18th century.  Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, but generally operate in South Mumbai. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city and the top Marathi language newspapers are Maharashtra Times, Navakaal, Lokmat, Loksatta, Mumbai Chaufer, Saamana and Sakaal. "Central Pollution Control Board Air Quality Information. These are spoken by 4,396,870 people which is 32.24% of the population(Marathi as a single language is spoken by 22% of the population). Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008. , The proposed Navi Mumbai International airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.  In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to several heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels. Mumbai will host the 140th IOC Session in 2023. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.. Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the MCGM) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government.  Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai.  The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944mm (37in) on 26 July 2005.  On the West coast are former-textile mills being demolished and skyscrapers built on top. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway.  Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10m (33ft) to 15m (49ft); the city has an average elevation of 14m (46ft).  The cooler season from December to February is followed by the hotter season from March to May. According to the treaty, the Seven Islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese.  The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28 to 31 December 1885. , Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since then diversified to include finance, engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology.
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